How to Maintain NAD+ Homeostasis to Regulate Mitochondrial and Cardiac Function
1. IntroductionMitochondria are the center of energy metabolism in cardiomyocytes, which are necessary for maintaining normal myocardial contractility and cardiac function. Typically, the development of cardiovascular disease is usually accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction. Impaired autophagy is known to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and heart failure, in part due to altered mitophagy and protein quality control. Notably, external replenishment of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursors can enhance autophagy and mitochondrial quality control to maintain metabolic health, thereby regulate mitochondrial and cardiac function.
2. NAD+ metabolism in mitochondrial and cardiac functionCardiomyocytes accumulate NAD+ mostly within their mitochondria, where the bulk of cellular oxidation-reduction reactions occur. However, NAD+ is also present in the cytosol and nucleus, in which NAD+-derived metabolites and NAD+-dependent enzymes contribute to various cellular functions.
3. Mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction induced by NAD+ deficiency
4. The impact of autophagic flux upon cardiac and mitochondrial functionAutophagy is an intracellular degradation pathway that recycles subcellular components, playing a critical in modulating metabolic homeostasis. Autophagic flux, a central homeostatic mechanism that degrades materials toxic to cardiomyocytes, can mediate SQSTM1-NF-κB-NNMT signal transduction to control the cellular level of NAD+, thereby maintaining the mitochondrial and cardiac function.
5. ConclusionAutophagic flux may be a potential way to maintain the cellular level of NAD to regulate mitochondrial and cardiac fiunction.
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