How to Maintain NAD+ Homeostasis to Regulate Mitochondrial and Cardiac Function

How to Maintain NAD+ Homeostasis to Regulate Mitochondrial and Cardiac Function



1. Introduction

Mitochondria are the center of energy metabolism in cardiomyocytes, which are necessary for maintaining normal myocardial contractility and cardiac function. Typically, the development of cardiovascular disease is usually accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction. Impaired autophagy is known to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and heart failure, in part due to altered mitophagy and protein quality control. Notably, external replenishment of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursors can enhance autophagy and mitochondrial quality control to maintain metabolic health, thereby regulate mitochondrial and cardiac function.

2. NAD+ metabolism in mitochondrial and cardiac function

Cardiomyocytes accumulate NAD+ mostly within their mitochondria, where the bulk of cellular oxidation-reduction reactions occur. However, NAD+ is also present in the cytosol and nucleus, in which NAD+-derived metabolites and NAD+-dependent enzymes contribute to various cellular functions.

3. Mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction induced by NAD+ deficiency

Mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction triggered by NAD+ deficiency is alleviated in cAtg3-KO mouse hearts post the administration of β-nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), as evidenced by the restoration of citrate synthase (CS) activity, partial normalization of ATP level and NPPB mRNA expression in cAtg3-KO mice as well as upregulation of ADP level in WT mouse hearts. Besides, NNMT inhibition can rescue mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction in cAtg3-KO mice by restoring NAD+ level.

4. The impact of autophagic flux upon cardiac and mitochondrial function

Autophagy is an intracellular degradation pathway that recycles subcellular components, playing a critical in modulating metabolic homeostasis. Autophagic flux, a central homeostatic mechanism that degrades materials toxic to cardiomyocytes, can mediate SQSTM1-NF-κB-NNMT signal transduction to control the cellular level of NAD+, thereby maintaining the mitochondrial and cardiac function. 

5. Conclusion

Autophagic flux may be a potential way to maintain the cellular level of NAD to regulate mitochondrial and cardiac fiunction.
.

Reference

[1] Abdellatif M, Sedej S, Kroemer G. NAD+ Metabolism in Cardiac Health, Aging, and Disease. Circulation. 2021;144(22):1795-1817. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.056589
[2] Zhang Q, Li Z, Li Q, et al. Control of NAD+ homeostasis by autophagic flux modulates mitochondrial and cardiac function. EMBO J. Published online January 11, 2024. doi:10.1038/s44318-023-00009-w

About BONTAC



BONTAC has rich R&D experience and advanced technology in the biosynthesis of NAD and NMN. Bonzyme whole-enzymatic method is adopted, which is environmental-friendly, with no harmful solvent residues. The purity of products can reach up to 95%, which is benefited from the exclusive Bonpure seven-step purification technology. BONTAC has self-owned factories and has obtained a number of international certifications, where high quality and stable supply of products can be ensured. BONTAC has over 160 domestic and foreign patents, leading the industry of coenzyme and natural products. In the future, BONTAC will actively expand the international market, and work with global partners to promote the prosperous development of synthetic biology industry. In this era full of challenges and opportunities, BONTAC is confident to make greater contributions to the cause of human health.

Disclaimer

This article is based on the reference in the academic journal. The relevant information is provide for sharing and learning purposes only, and does not represent any medical advice purposes. If there is any infringement, please contact the author for deletion. The views expressed in this article do not represent the position of BONTAC. 

Under no circumstances will BONTAC be held responsible or liable in any way for any claims, damages, losses, expenses, costs or liabilities whatsoever (including, without limitation, any direct or indirect damages for loss of profits, business interruption or loss of information) resulting or arising directly or indirectly from your reliance on the information and material on this website.

 

Get In Touch


Recommend Read

  • The 24th SupplySide West


    On October 17,2019-18, the 24th western American plant extracts, health and innovation raw materials exhibition (SupplySide West) in Las Vegas Mandela hotel convention and exhibition center, is hosted by the INFORMA, wit

  • Hi & Fi Asia-China 2022


    The 23rd Healthy Natural Raw materials, food ingredients China Exhibition opened in Shanghai National Convention and Exhibition Center Bangtai Biological with the third generation of total enzyme catalytic technology C p

  • The 20th World Pharmaceutical Raw Materials China Exhibition


    From December 16 to 18,2020, the 20th World Pharmaceutical Raw Materials China Exhibition (CPhI China 2020) was successfully held in Shanghai New International Expo Center. Bangtai Biological Engineering (Shenzhen) Co.,

  • Healthy China 2021 Nutrition and Healthy Food Conference


    From July 8th to July 9th, 2021, "Healthy China 2021 Nutrition and Healthy Food Conference" (HFIC) was grandly held in Hangzhou International Expo Center! Bangtai Biological Engineering (Shenzhen) Co., LTD. (he

  • The Importance of NAD Metabolism in White Adipose Tissue


    1. Introduction Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) compartmentalized in adipocytes can modulate adipocyte differentiation and gene expression, in addition to controlling glucose metabolism. White adipose tiss

Leave Your Message