NR as a Driver of Macrophage Migration to Boost Chronic Wound Healing

NR as a Driver of Macrophage Migration to Boost Chronic Wound Healing


Wound healing is a sophisticated process responding to tissue damage, which is associated with numbers of interaction of various cell types, cytokines, growth factors, and other molecules. Strikingly, increasing the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) pool by nicotinamide riboside (NR) can accelerate wound healing and macrophage migration, which is partially achieved through PGE2 synthesis and signaling as well as the function of the NAD+-dependent sirtuin, SIRT3.

Regulatory effects of NR on the expression of M1 macrophage markers in human MDMs.

NR could modulate the expression levels of canonical M1 (inflammatory phenotype) and M2 (reparative phenotype) cell surface markers during macrophage polarization. With a great detail, a significant downregulation in CD64 and a obvious upregulation of CD197/CCR7 are viewed in the polarized M1 cells incubated with NR. Furthermore, NR increases CD197/CCR7-mediated M1 macrophage migration.

The significance of chemotaxis mediator PGE2 in NR-regulated macrophage migration

NR-mediated upregulation of macrophage migration through CCL19/CCR7 is dependent on the synthesis of PGE2, an inflammatory lipid mediator in the eicosanoid family. Concretely, NR administration increases the PGE2 level in cultured human monocytes, MDMs, and human serum. In addition, NR-mediated increases in CCR7 expression and CCL19-induced migration are attenuated by PGE2 synthesis blockers.

NR/SIRT3/migration axis in human M1 MDMs

NR facilitates collective cell migration at a SIRT3-dependent manner in human M1 MDMs during wound healing. Simply put, the degree of wound healing is compared on Day 0 and Day 2 in vehicle- or NR-treated human M1 MDMs. It is found that NR increases the relative degree of migration (relative wound healing) and the rate of wound confluence in the presence of CCL19. Besides, the relative degree of wound density (migration) is blunted by SIRT3 knockdown, while being enhanced by SIRT3 overexpression.

Application prospect of NR in wound healing

Chronic diabetes is often accompanied with poor wound healing. For instance, diabetic foot ulcers, one of the chief cause of amputations, affect 15% of people with diabetes. Given that NR can drive the macrophage migration to boost chronic wound healing, it may have a broad application prospect in treating the wounds including but not limited to diabetic patients.


In human macrophages, NR induces surface expression of the chemotaxis CD197/CCR7 receptor and levels of its lipid mediator PGE2 via upregulation of cyclooxygenase 2 and functionally increases macrophage migration and wound healing in a SIRT3-dependent manner.


Wu J, Bley M, Steans RS, et al. Nicotinamide Riboside Augments Human Macrophage Migration via SIRT3-Mediated Prostaglandin E2 Signaling. Cells. 2024;13(5):455. Published 2024 Mar 5. doi:10.3390/cells13050455


BONTAC is one of the few suppliers in China that can launch mass production of raw materials for NR, with self-owned factory and professional R&D team. Up till now, there are 173 BONTAC patents. BONTAC provides one-stop service for customized products. Both malate and chloride salt forms of NR are available. By dirt of unique Bonpure seven-step purification technology and Bonzyme Whole-enzymatic method, the product content and conversion rate can be maintained in a higher level. The purity of BONTAC NR can reach above 97%. Our products are subjected to strict third-party self-inspection, which are worth of trustworthy.



This article is based on the reference in the academic journal. The relevant information is provided for sharing and learning purposes only, and does not represent any medical advice purposes. If there is any infringement, please contact the author for deletion. The views expressed in this article do not represent the position of BONTAC.

Under no circumstances will BONTAC be held responsible or liable in any way for any claims, damages, losses, expenses, costs or liabilities whatsoever (including, without limitation, any direct or indirect damages for loss of profits, business interruption or loss of information) resulting or arising directly or indirectly from your reliance on the information and material on this website.


Get In Touch

Recommend Read

Leave Your Message