NMN Impacts HIV-1 Infection by Modulating Immune Activation in T cell

NMN Impacts HIV-1 Infection by Modulating Immune Activation in T cell

Vitamin D and B3 (niacin) could aid immune activation and CD4+ T cell reconstitution in INRs. NAD, vital for cellular function, declines with age, linking to various diseases. NAD boosters like NMN, NR, and NAM show promise in disease management, especially in modulating immune responses. NMN is a potential clinical candidate. Investigating NMN's impact on HIV/AIDS becomes crucial, prompting research on its potential to modulate immune activation in CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection.

1. NMN's Impact on Viral Replication in CD4+ T Cells

NMN treatment elevated intracellular NAD levels in CD4+ T cells, effectively suppressing viral replication in HIV-1 infected cells without inducing significant cell death. This suggests a potential role for NMN in inhibiting viral spread within primary CD4+ T cells (as shown in Figure 1).

nmn-1 nmn-2
Figure 1 

2. Modulation of Infected CD25+ CD4+ T Cell Subsets by NMN

NMN demonstrated an ability to influence the proliferation of infected CD25+ CD4+ T cell subsets. It affected the expression of CD25 receptors and appeared to modulate the proliferation of HIV-expressing cells, potentially offering a mechanism to control the spread of the virus within specific T cell subsets (as shown in Figure 2). 

Figure 2 

3. Combined NMN and cART Treatment Effects in Humanized Mouse Models

In humanized mouse models, the combination of NMN and cART treatment showcased promising results. It significantly improved CD4+ T cell reconstitution, reduced hyperactivation of T cells, and effectively suppressed viral replication, particularly when compared to cART treatment alone(as shown in Figure 1). This combination therapy revealed potential benefits in managing HIV infection by enhancing immune responses and controlling viral spread.

Figure 3

These summarized sections highlight NMN's impact on HIV-1 infection within CD4+ T cells, its potential modulation of specific T cell subsets, and the promising outcomes seen when combining NMN with cART in a preclinical model.


Mo, Y., Yim, L., et, Nicotinamide mononucleotide impacts HIV-1 infection by modulating immune activation in T lymphocytes and humanized mice, eBioMedicine, 2023.


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