The Immuno-Enhancing Effect of Rh2-L on Double Emulsion Adjuvant Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease
1. IntroductionAt present, vaccine is the preferred option for the prevention of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), for which the adjuvant is essential due to its strong role in boosting immune response associated with vaccine antigens.
Herein, Rh2 liposomes (Rh2-L) are prepared by ethano injection methods, then loaded into a double emulsion adjuvant and emulsified into a Water-in-Oil-in-Water (W/O/W) emulsion, together with FMDV antigen, for the prevention of FMD.
2. About FMDFMD, also known as aphthous fever, is a viral and fulminating infectious disease in which the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) violates hoofed livestock such as cattle, pigs and sheep. Since FMD is a zoonotic disease with high incidence and fast transmission speed, FMD vaccination is significant for those with long-term contact with livestock or low immunity such as the herders, veterinarians and children.
3.The significance of transform Rh2 into Rh2-LBy transformation of Rh2 into Rh2-L, on the one hand, the poor solubility and hemolysis of Rh2 can be mitigated to a large extent. On the other hand, Rh2-L functions as a liposome. Noteworthily, liposome itself has been revealed to be an adjuvant in vaccine design to improve immune response by interacting with antigen-presenting cells (APCs), increasing the representation of immune stimulants to APCs, and stimulating innate immunity.
4. The immune-enhancing effect of Rh2-L on FMD vaccineRh2-L has a immune-enhancing effect, as evidenced by an increase in humoral and cellular immune responses. In the FMDV model, the group of the FMD vaccine prepared with double emulsion adjuvants containing Rh2-L presents a more desirable protective effect relative to other groups. This group has a higher neutralizing antibody titer, stronger lymphocyte proliferation responses, and higher levels of cellular and humoral immune cytokine production, including IFN-γ and IL-4.
5. ConclusionRh2-L can further boost the immune effect of the double emulsion adjuvant against foot-and-mouth disease, which may be a promising and powerful platform for subunit vaccine adjuvant.
6. ReferenceSaiya Miao, Qiufang Jing, Xuanyu Wang, et al. “Immuno-Enhancing Effect of Ginsenoside Rh2 Liposomes on Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine”. Molecular Pharmaceutics. 2024 21 (1), 183-193. DOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.3c00733
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